Interbank offered rates (IBORs) have served for decades as the reference rate at which banks borrow in the interbank market. During the last financial crisis however, significant fraud and conspiracy connected to the rate submissions led to the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) scandal. This triggered concerns on the sustainability of certain IBORs in the unsecured bank funding market.

LIBOR was also the basis for consumer loans in countries around the world, so it impacts consumers just as much as it does financial institutions. The interest rates on various credit products such as credit cards, car loans, and adjustable-rate mortgages fluctuate based on the interbank rate. This change in rate helps determine the ease of borrowing between banks and consumers. The IBOR goes further, providing users with broader, more granular and real-time views of performance and risk data.

  1. There are several alternative indexes that have been proposed to replace the USD LIBOR.
  2. An ABOR is focused on costs, on total net asset value, and on charts of accounts.
  3. ISDA fosters safe and efficient derivatives markets to facilitate
    effective risk management for all users of derivative products.

Much remains uncertain, but stakeholder inaction risks aggravating the issues facing firms as they move to ARRs. The most straightforward example of a LIBOR-based transaction is a floating rate bond, which pays an annual interest based on LIBOR, say at LIBOR + 0.5%. The new system is designed to replace the conjecture surrounding interest rates that was predominant under LIBOR and instead use actual transaction rates. The IBA calculates the LIBOR rate using a trimmed mean approach applied to all the responses received.

IBOR vs ABOR vs PBOR vs CBOR – Differences and Similarities

Please see About Deloitte for a more detailed description of DTTL and its member firms. As the journey to transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) continues to move forward, supervisors across jurisdictions have started approaching institutions to gain insights into their operational readiness. In Switzerland, a wide range of products with substantial contract volume is tied to LIBOR. EY is a global leader in assurance, consulting, strategy and transactions, and tax services.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued guidance on derivative and hedging transactions, and there are proposed amendments to ASC 815 that will add SOFR as a benchmark; similar guidance will be required in other jurisdictions. Banks will need to ensure that the ARR-linked instruments, contracts and derivatives poised to replace IBOR-linked contracts are recognized as eligible hedges under the accounting rules. In 2012, a group of banks were accused of manipulating their IBOR submissions during the financial crisis. In the wake of those scandals, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) shifted supervision of the index to the Intercontinental Exchange Benchmark Administration (IBA).

The content of this page reflects HSBC’s understanding of the reforms as at 28 April 2023. It is not exhaustive and does not constitute any form of advice or recommendation. You should contact your professional advisors about the possible implications of the changes such as financial, legal, accountancy or tax consequences. Please read the content of this page carefully, together with any other communications you may have received from HSBC. “The core requirement of IBOR is to deliver high-quality position data with the content and timeliness required by its users. It must ensure that the users understand the data that they are presented with, know how far they can rely on it, and understand the time that it is aligned / accurate to.»

LIBOR: What the London Interbank Offered Rate Is and How It’s Used

For further information on other aspects of IBOR replacement, visit our LIBOR reference rate and reform insights page. A modern IBOR can in many cases obviate the need for a traditional in-house accounting system, and hence can have the additional benefit of reducing the number of systems operated across the asset manager. You already have the second part of the Investment Book of Record definition above, «[…] position management in the front, middle and back office».

IBOR Benefits

The first step towards the IBOR Transition was the designation of Alternative Reference Rates (ARRs) which have been slated to replace certain IBORs. Industry groups comprising public and private sector representatives across jurisdictions have identified these replacement benchmarks, and consultations are on-going to establish new conventions and transition approaches. EY helps global institutions prepare for the imminent transition away from Interbank Offered Rates (IBORs) to Alternate Reference Rates (ARRs). We also play a leading role in supporting regulators, trade associations and others to increase awareness and education.

IBORs are focused on market price and on start-of-day and even intra-day positions. They support performance returns at the individual position level, with updates applied to historical holdings or open periods. With increasing market and regulatory demands, firms need to take decision-making, compliance and operational efficiency to the next level.

Sparked by inflation, falling equity markets, interest rate movements and increasing recessionary risk, asset managers have struggled to generate returns for clients, with the S&P Composite 1500 Asset Management Index down 22% last year. This has translated to outflows in the U.S. for the first time in more than a decade. According to Broadridge, global Assets under Management (AuM) fell by 13% in 2022 to $96 trillion, making it the largest single-year decrease in the last ten years. Once AIG started falling apart, it became clear that failing subprime mortgages and the securities built on top of them weren’t properly insured, many banks became reluctant to lend to each other. Libor transmitted the crisis far and wide since every day Libor rate-setting banks estimated higher and higher interest rates. Libor rose, making loans more expensive, even as global central banks rushed to slash interest rates.

Investment managers had to start relying on adding on separate portfolio, order and execution management systems to perform their trading, performance management and other intra-day activities. While the multiple applications helped to bridge gaps, the approach leads to inaccurate and/or incomplete data across these systems. You should contact your professional advisors about the possible implications of the changes including those outlined on this page such as financial, legal, accounting and tax consequences. The content of this page is for general information only and on a strictly non-advised basis. It does not constitute any form of advice or recommendation, nor does it represent an exhaustive description of the impact, likelihood or consequences of any particular option or any particular risk applying to you or any of your contracts. HSBC is not your advisor and does not through this page or otherwise provide any advice or recommendation or product offering, nor does it assume any responsibility to provide advice.

Yet there are still questions about which data should be stored, and discussions about how to choose the right data for specific analyses can be difficult. PBOR is effectively a superset of IBOR in that it is more granular and covers greater ground. In 2013, the G20 asked the Financial Stability Board (FSB) to undertake a fundamental review of major interest rate benchmarks. This work led to the recognition that even after reforms that strengthened the underlying processes, certain risks relating to robustness and reliability of IBORs could not be fully addressed. Notably, structural shifts in the way major banks funded their operations had led to declining transaction volume in the markets that underpin IBORs.

The real benefit comes from other systems’ use of the data, which means that any implementation needs to include significant reference to those systems as well. The ideal IBOR of today offers real-time processing of the entire investment lifecycle through its cloud native architecture and eliminates the need for multiple systems — resulting in just one system to run end-to-end. This page focuses on the implications of IBOR reform for financial reporting under IFRS.

Most ARRs, initially, will solely be an overnight rate, which means that term rates will need to be calibrated based on transactions in the derivatives market. To facilitate the timely and smooth transition of cash products, the definition of term rates for ARR needs to be accelerated. Market adoption and liquidity in ARR derivatives will be milestones for the transition plan. However, as the transition timing for cash products is likely to lag derivatives, the demand for ARR derivatives to hedge the potential interest rate risk embedded in loans and other cash products will also be delayed.

Institutions must proactively engage with regulatory and industry-led efforts to analyze the complex challenges ahead and develop solutions to mitigate significant risks to their organizations. All market participants should rapidly begin assessing the cross-functional implications to their specific businesses and clients; and develop robust implementation plans with the aim of reducing their reliance on IBORs prior to 2021. To overcome the shortcomings forex trading 24 hours of the flush & refresh and rolling balance approach to position management, a new approach was outlined in 2014 by a consortium of asset managers. This might intuitively feel like a better approach than flush & fill, because we’re no longer dependent on an external system daily. The rolling balance approach is usually capable of projecting the future and can be used as a source for reconciliation (so long as its transaction data is complete).